Most of the modern high-speed designs are implemented with differential transmission lines. Using a true differential TDR simplifies the setup for signal integrity measurements in such designs. In some scenarios the ground connection could be difficult to connect or not accessible if you want measure unshielded twisted pair cables. Most of the time, when you take measurements using a true differential TDR a ground connection is not required and gives you the flexibility to use TDR-probes without a ground connection.
With up to 10 MHz repetition rate the T3SP-series is more than 300 times faster as conventional TDR instruments which are based on sampling scopes. To achieve the highest possible dynamic range TDR instruments need to acquire and average out hundreds of waveforms. The faster sampling rate delivers quicker and more accurate measurement results.
Reference impedance in all TDR instruments are relative; they are made by comparing reflected amplitudes to an incident amplitude. Using full OSLT-calibration the T3SP-series is offering best accuracy for impedance measurements in time and frequency domain. Using four calibration standards (open, short, load, thru) for T3SP15D in the time domain instead of using a simple normalization which is common in TDR-instruments offers vastly improved error correction for the setup. Using OSLT calibration in the time domain avoids irregularities in impedance plots, such as ringing that occurs after the TDR incident step.
Many of the modern standards like Ethernet or USB require you to measure the impedance matching of the cables and connectors within the frequency domain. These are the measures commonly made with traditional VNA instruments. The T3SPseries offers fully calibrated differential S-Parameter measurements up to 15 GHz (T3SP15D) using the same OSLT-calibration standards used by VNAs.
Assuming cables are perfect is a common mistake. Unless you have verified the quality of your cables, there is always the possibility that even your premium cables may have some imperfections that can cause measurement artifacts. The T3SP-series reveals immediately the quality of your cables, identifying parts that are out of spec, due to damage or defects. The SP-series can acquire up to 50.000 points which gives you a long TDR record capture with high resolution on long DUTs. Additionally, you have the flexibility to change the TDR repetition rate from 10 MHz to 1MHz using cable lengths measuring up to 40 m.
High-frequency measurement devices are extremely sensitive to electrostatic discharge (ESD) and can lead to permanent damage to your measurement device. In addition, many laboratories have a requirement to take special precautions to protect their electronic equipment from any damage caused by ESD. The SP-series mitigates this risk by providing a higher degree of protection from this happening. Every SP-series model comes equipped with an ESD-protection module based on high-performance coaxial RF-switches. The ways this works is the RF input circuitry is protected by isolating the devices RF-signal detector from the input connector when the device is not being used to take measurements.
The high bit rates used in modern electronics design and future serial data standards extend well into the microwave region. For example, the High-speed Universal Serial Bus (USB3.1) supports transfer rates up to 10 GB/s over twisted-pair cables. These high bit rate transmissions through connectors and cables results in considerable distortion because of channel dispersion. To keep the distortion to manageable levels, many standards specify the impedance, return loss and insertion loss for cables and connectors. These measurements are represented by the S-parameter. The T3SP series offer fully calibrated differential S-Parameter measurements up to 15 GHz (T3SP15D). This gives you the flexibility to store your output files in a variety of formats (CSV, Matlab and Touchstone) which can be easily which can be easily used in tools like SI-Studio, Matlab or other simulation programs.
Due to increasing clock rates in high speed digital systems the necessity of controlled impedance PCBs is growing rapidly. Additionally, cables and connectors must meet high frequency design specifications and controlled impedance specifications. The T3SP-series helps you to measure wave impedances of PCBs, cables, and connectors very accurate and comfortably. In contrast to other systems on the market, the T3SP-series is designed for measuring specific traces on a PCB and for on-board tests, the TDR-Probes ensure accurate measurement for qualification testing and debugging assembled PCBs.